Kemp’s Ridley Turtle

Common Eider, a Kemp's ridley sea turtle rehabilitated by the New England Aquarium, getting released into the ocean. Image.
Common Eider, a Kemp’s ridley sea turtle rehabilitated by the New England Aquarium, getting released into the ocean. ©Connie Merigo, New England Aquarium (CC BY 3.0)

The Kemp’s ridley turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) is comparable in size to its sister species, the olive ridley, with a carapace length of 55-66 cm and an average weight between 25-54 kg. The shell is heart-shaped with an olive-green carapace and a yellowish-brown plastron. The Kemp’s ridley is slightly wider and lighter in colour than the olive ridley. It was long debated whether the two are actually distinct species, but genetic analysis confirmed that indeed they are. Kemp’s and olive ridleys originate around the Americas and diverged roughly 3-6 million years ago, which coincides with the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. Kemp’s ridleys remained on the Atlantic side, olive ridleys on the Pacific, but they later colonized the Indian and Atlantic Ocean from there.

This is the only turtle species not named after a specific characteristic, but after a person. Harvard based biologist Samuel Garman named the species after Richard Kemp, a fisherman and naturalist from Florida, who sent him a specimen of the turtle in 1880.

Kemp’s Ridley Turtle Biology and Behaviour

Female Kemp's ridley turtle coming out of the sea, Mexico. Image.
A female Kemp’s ridley coming out of the sea, Soto La Marina Tamaulipas, Mexico. Arribada of May 13th 2012. ©Ivan Cumpian (CC0)

Kemp’s ridley turtles reach maturity between 7 and 15 years of age and then will come to nest every 1-2 years. They nest on average three times per season every 20 to 28 days. Like olive ridleys, Kemp’s ridley show a specific synchronized nesting behaviour known as arribada. During an arribada, which roughly means ‘arrival’ in Spanish, many females come ashore to nest at the same time.

3 Kemp's ridley hatchlings on the beach. Image.
Three Kemp’s ridley hatchlings on the beach. ©Cynthia Rubio (CC BY-ND 3.0)

The number of eggs per nest varies between nesting seasons, but is usually between 97 and 112 eggs. After 50-60 days the little turtles hatch and rush of into the sea. The sprint seems rather long for the hatchlings, which at this stage only measure 40-43 mm.

Prevailing currents in the Gulf of Mexico carry the hatchlings into the north and east of the Gulf of Mexico.

The lifespan of Kemp’s ridleys is unknown.

Kemp’s Ridley Turtle Diet

Kemp's ridely turtle eating a squid. Image.
A Kemp’s ridley turtle eating a squid. ©Christina Martin (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

At the beginning of their lives Kemp’s ridley turtles are omnivores. They are feeding on seaweed such as Sargassum, and small creatures that live in the seaweed, like crabs and snails. Adult Kemp’s ridleys are benthic feeders, that means they are looking for food on the seabed. Their main prey are crustaceans, but they also feed on fish, molluscs, squids and jellyfish.

Kemp’s Ridley Turtle Habitat and Distribution

Kemp's ridley hatchling on the beach. Image.
Kemp’s ridley hatchling on the beach. ©Cynthia Rubio (image cropped, CC BY-ND 3.00)

Kemp’s ridley turtles exhibit one of the most restricted distribution of all sea turtles. They are only found along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and the eastern USA up to Canada. Kemp’s ridleys are only rarely spotted on the other side of the Atlantic on the coast of France or the United Kingdom. The only nesting areas of the turtle are found in Mexico and Texas, with the majority of all nesting activity concentrated on only 30 km of beach.

Nesting female Kemp's ridley turtle. Image.
Nesting female kemp’s ridley turtle, nicknamed “Mij”, laying 116 eggs on Galveston’s East Beach. ©Ron Wooten, Wildscreen Exchange.

The history of the species is a tumultuous one. For a long time, the location of the nesting beach was a mystery. In the 1940s, a young engineer and pilot named Andrés Herrera, repeatedly flew over a stretch of the Mexican coast that was rumored to host arribadas in the past for three weeks. Herrera was indeed successful and filmed what is now estimated to be around 40,000 Kemp’s ridley turtles nesting.

This incredible movie remained unknown to the scientific community until 1961 when it was shown by Dr Henry Hildebrand at the summer meeting of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. At that time, the Kemp’s ridley was already in trouble.

Mid 1960s, the arribada was estimated to consist of only 2,000 females due to the poaching of eggs and a loss of females to the fishing industry. Despite first protection efforts, the numbers continued to decline until there were less than 300 left in the 1980s.

Thanks to relentless conservation efforts from a joint Mexico-U.S. team, the trend slowly turned in the late 1990s, early 2000s. A combination of nesting beach protection and improved fisheries regulations saved this rarest of all sea turtles from the brink of extinction and is now estimated to be over 22,000 individuals strong.

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Sea Turtle FAQ – The Answers to All Your Sea Turtle Questions

Male hawksbill popping head above surface for air, Maldives. Image.
Marvin, male hawksbill, coming up for a breathe, Maldives.

Sea turtles can hold their breath for several hours, depending on their level of activity.

If they are sleeping, they can remain underwater for several hours. In cold water during winter, when they are effectively hibernating, they can hold their breath for up to 7 hours. This involves very little movement.

Although turtles can hold their breath for 45 minutes to one hour during routine activity, they normally dive for 4-5 minutes and surfaces to breathe for a few seconds in between dives.

However, a stressed turtle, entangled in a ghost net for instance, quickly uses up oxygen stored within its body and may drown within minutes if it cannot reach the surface.

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References:

  • Hays GC, Akesson S, Broderick AC, Glen F, Godley BJ, Luschi P, Martin C, Metcalfe JD & Papi F 2001. The diving behaviour of green turtles undertaking oceanic migration to and from Ascension Island: dive durations, dive profiles and depth distribution. Journal of Experimental Biology 204: 4093-4098.
  • Hays GC, Hochscheid S, Broderick AC, Godley BJ & Metcalfe JD 2000. Diving behaviour of green turtles: dive depth, dive duration and activity levels. Marine Ecology Progress Series 208: 297-298.
  • Hochscheid S, Bentivegna F & Hays GC 2005. First records of dive durations for a hibernating sea turtle. Biology Letters 1: 82-86.
  • Lutz PL and Musik JA (eds.) 1996. The Biology of Sea Turtles Volume I. CRC Press.

The actual documentation of a sea turtle’s age in the wild is difficult or nearly impossible. Individual turtles can be tracked for a shorter time of six month to three years with the help of satellite transmitters. Longterm studies rely on capture-recapture principle, just like our turtle photo id project. Each photo of a turtle represents a recapture event documenting that the individual is still alive.

A study of nesting green turtles in Hawaii observed female turtles returning to nest for up to 38 years after they were first identified. Assuming the average age at first nesting activity of 24 years, this would show that green turtles can live to up to at least 62 years.

Similar estimates have been made for loggerhead turtles.

An adult green turtle resting on a reef in Maldives, image
An adult green turtle
Hawksbill turtle resting on the reef, Maldives
An adult hawksbill turtle

References:

  • Dodd C 1988. Synopsis of the biological data on the loggerhead sea turtle. Ecology 88.
  • Humburg IH and Balazs GH 2014. Forty Years of Research: Recovery Records of Green Turtles Observed or Originally Tagged at French Frigate Shoals in Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1973-2013. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-PIFSC-40.

When sea turtles are juveniles, it is very difficult to tell their sex by eye as they do not differ externally. However, after reaching sexual maturity male sea turtles develop a long tail, which houses the reproductive organ. The tail may extend past the hind flippers.

Female turtles have a short tail, which generally doesn’t extend more than 10 cm (4 inches) past the edge of the carapace. Male sea turtles (except leatherbacks) have elongated, curved claws on their front flippers to help them grasp the female when mating.

The sex of a sea turtle embryo is determined by the temperature of the sand: warm temperatures result in more females while cooler temperatures result in more males.

Male green turtle tail
Male green turtle tail
Female green turtle tail
Female green turtle tail

The olive and Kemp’s ridley sea turtles are the smallest species, growing only to about 70 cm (just over 2 feet) in shell length and weighing up to 45 kg (100 lbs). Leatherbacks are the largest sea turtles. On average leatherbacks measure 1.5 – 2m (4-6 ft) long and weigh 300 – 500 kg (660 to 1,100 lbs). The largest leatherback ever recorded was 2,56 m (8.4 ft) long and weighed 916 kg (2,019 lbs) !

Kemp’s Ridley

Nesting female kemp's ridley turtle, nicknamed
Nesting female kemp’s ridley turtle, nicknamed “Mij”, laying 116 eggs on Galveston’s East Beach. ©Ron Wooten, Wildscreen Exchange.

55.6-66.0 cm carapace length, weight range of 25-54 kg for nesting females.

References:

  • Marquez-M R 1994. Synopsis of Biological Data on the Kemp’s Ridley Turtle, Lepidochelys kempi (Garman, 1880). NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-343.

Olive Ridley

Female Oliver ridley turtle nesting on the beach during arribada
Nesting female olive ridley turtle ©Susie Gibson.

Curved carapace length 52.5-80.0 cm, weight less than 50 kg (average 35.7 kg) for nesting females.

References:

  • Qureshi M 2006. Sea turtles in Pakistan. In: Shanker K and Choudhury BC (Eds.). Marine Turtles of the Indian Sub- continent. Heydarabad: India Universities Press, pp. 217–224.Reichart HA 1993.
  • Reichart HA 1993. Synopsis of biological data on the olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz 1829) in the western Atlantic. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-336.

Hawksbills

Adult male hawksbill turtle swimming in the blue, Maldives. Image
Adult male hawksbill, Maldives.

Nesting females reported between 53.3 and 95.5 cm carapace length, with weight between 27.2 and 86.2 kg.

References:

  • Witzell WN 1983. Synopsis of biological data on the hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1766). No. 137. Food & Agriculture Org.

Green turtles

Adult green turtles mating, Malsdives. Image.
Adult green turtles mating, Maldives.

Nesting green females reported curved carapace length 75-134 cm, weight (after egg deposition) 45-250 kg (!).

References:

  • Hirth HF 1997. Synopsis of the Biological Data on the Green Turtle Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758). Vol. 2. Fish and Wildlife Service, US Department of the Interior.

Flatbacks

Nesting flatback sea turtle ©Lyndie Malan / CC BY-SA.

Ones study (Ref. 1) found nesting females have a mean curved carapace length 86.3 cm, and mean weight of 67.4 kg. Another study (Ref. 2) found flatbacks to be between 87.5-96.5 cm.

References:

  • Schäuble C, Kennett R and Winderlich S 2006. Flatback Turtle (Natator depressus) nesting at Field Island, Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory, Australia, 1990-2001. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 5: 188-194.
  • Limpus CJ 1971. The Flatback Turtle, Chelonia depressa Garman in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Herpetologica 27: 431-446.

Loggerheads

Adult female loggerhead, Oman.

Adult loggerhead turtles measure between 65 and 115 cm in curved carapace length and typically weigh between 40 and 180 kg. The largest recorded loggerhead weighed 545 kg and measured 213 cm in presumed total body length. On average, nesting, and therefore adult, female loggerheads have a curved carapace length of 65.1-114.9 cm and weigh between 40.0 and 180.7 kg. Males fall into the same size range (79.0-104.0 cm curved carapace length).

References:

  • Brongersma LD 1972. European Atlantic turtles. Zoologische Verhandlingen 121, Leiden.
  • Dodd C 1988. Synopsis of the biological data on the loggerhead sea turtle. Ecology 88: 1-119.
  • Ernst CH and Lovich JE 2009. Turtles of the United States and Canada, 2nd edition. John Hopkins University Press.

Leatherbacks

Leatherback Turtle, Claudia Lombard, USFWS
Adult leatherback turtle ©Claudia Lombard, USFWS.

143.8-169.5 cm curved carapace length, weight 259-506 kg recorded for nesting females all around the world. Largest ever recorded specimen was found dead on a beach on the coast of Wales. The adult male turtle weighed 916 kg and its shell was 256.5 cm long. An autopsy revealed that it had drowned.

References:

  • Eckert KL and Luginbuhl C 1988. Death of a Giant. Marine Turtle Newsletter 43: 2-3.
  • Eckert KL, Wallace BP, Frazier JG, Eckert SA and Pritchard PCH 2012. Synopsis of the Biological Data on the Leatherback Sea Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea). Biological Technical Publication BTP-R4015-2012, US Fish & Wildlife Service.

Each sea turtle species feeds on a specific diet and all lack teeth:

  • Flatbacks are mainly carnivorous turtle feeding in shallow waters on soft bottoms.
  • Green turtles are vegetarian and prefer sea grasses, sea weeds and algae as adults, however, green turtle hatchlings are omnivorous, eating jellyfish, snails, crabs, and shrimp.
  • Hawksbills have a bird-like beak that is used to cut through soft coral, anemones and sea sponges.
  • Kemp’s ridleys are omnivores at the beginning of their lives, feeding on seaweed and small creatures like crabs and snails. As adults, Kemp’s ridleys look for food on the seabed, feeding on crustaceans, fish, molluscs, squids and jellyfish.
  • Leatherbacks feed mostly on jellyfish.
  • Loggerheads feed mainly on hard-shelled organisms such as lobsters, crustaceans, and fish.
  • Olive ridleys are omnivorous, mostly eating jellyfish, snails, crabs, and shrimp but they will occasionally eat algae and seaweed as well.

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e-Turtle School – All About Sea Turtles

Everything you have ever wanted to know about sea turtles, from evolution to conservation. Suitable for all sea turtles lovers and those who want to learn more about these fascinating creatures.
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Deep dive into sea turtle science and conservation. Suitable for budding conservationists and those with an interest in the science surrounding turtles, their biology and conservation.

References

  • Bowen BW, Meylan AB and Avise JC 1991. Evolutionary distinctiveness of the endangered Kemp’s ridley sea turtle. Nature 352: 709-711.
  • IUCN SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group 2019. Lepidochelys kempii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-2
  • Marquez-M. R. 1994. Synopsis of Biological Data on the Kemp’s Ridley Turtle, Lepidochelys kempi (Garman, 1880). NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-343, 91 p.
  • Spotila JR 2004. Sea Turtles: A Complete Guide to Their Biology, Behaviour and Conservation. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.

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